2013 SOM winner James

James Leng is the winner of the 2013 SOM Award, a graduate student at Harvard University. He will bring this $50,000 prize to countries on four continents to explore his own research topics and explore the new meaning of outdated structures. Leng explained: “The concept of obsolescence is a familiar subject. However, the situation that falls around abandoned buildings is roughly a change from culture, subversive technological innovation, and even catastrophic disaster. As the speed of technological innovation and progress increases, it becomes crucial to ask ‘What is the use to become a building? & rdquo;
Majid Guerguis will receive a $20000SOM Travel/Research Scholarship. He earned a master’s degree in architecture from the University of Chicago, Illinois, in May 2013. As a SOM Foundation researcher, Guerguis will travel to research institutions in Australia, Europe and North America to conduct his research projects, soft borders – the emergence of significant energy. Noting the individual’s long-term goal, pursuing a harmonious blend of a different set of disciplines that apply to architectural discipline, the Guerguis observational architecture has remained tightly connected and scientific, and has relied on borrowing topics for other disciplines.
The SOM Award is awarded once a year and is a national competition. The SOM Foundation received 76 submissions and 34 American schools accredited courses on architecture, design and urban design. The design portfolio submitted, the research recommendations and the quality of the travel itinerary are judged. Meeting in Chicago and including the 2013 jury, including Chicago JAHN CEO Helmut · Jahn, American Institute of Architects member Tom Leader, Principal Tom Lida Studio, Berkeley, CA, Robert &middot ; Somore, Temporary Dean, University of Illinois, Chicago, School of Architecture, Design and Art and Chairman Brian · Lee, Associate Member of the American Institute of Architects, Partner, Skidmore Owings and Merrill LLP ( SOM).

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Marble countertops are used for longer maintenance

This maintenance of marble countertops is more durable.

Marble has an elegant luster. Because of the pores of the stone, it is difficult to maintain the luster of the marble. However, seals help prevent stones from absorbing liquids, but acidic liquids such as orange juice, lemon, soda, various foods, and common household cleaners can corrode stones, so do not use acidic cleaners on marble. Next, Xiaobian will introduce the advantages and maintenance points of marble countertops.

Marble Countertop Advantage

1, no deformation, high hardness of marble, strong wear resistance, uniform structure, minimal linear expansion coefficient, complete disappearance of internal stress, no deformation.

2, long service life, marble countertops are not afraid of acid and alkali liquid erosion, will not rust, not easy to stick dust, and will not be affected by moisture. The service life is very long.

3, physical stability, no scratches, no constant temperature conditions, can maintain its original physical properties at room temperature.

4, natural texture, marble countertops, elegant, very suitable for high-end decoration.

1 Protection has a deadline and needs to be re-applied regularly

Although the protective agent is not a panacea, the handwashing table does not brush the protective agent. Under normal circumstances, the effect of the protection of the sink is about 1 year, and there will be different degrees of pollution and lesions in 2 years. Therefore, the protection is not once and for all, and the protection should be regularly applied.

2 Prevent long-term retention of water

Used, The water in the basin should be emptied and the water on the countertop should be wiped dry. This habit can keep the stone surface clean and reduce pollution.

3 Choose the right cleaner

Stone is afraid of strong acid Strong bases are well known, clean stone should not be too fast to ignore the ingredients of detergents. Generally, the cleaning agent contains acid and alkali. If the cleaning agent of unknown composition is used for a long time, the surface gloss of the stone will be lost, and even the lesion may be caused. For example, if the marble is alkaline, it is necessary to use an alkaline washing liquid, and the granite is acidic, and an acidic washing liquid is used.

4 Preventing scratches

Scratch, Steel ball scratches will reduce the protective effect of the stone and should be avoided.

5 special cases

If the sink is heavily polluted Serious loss of light, surface aging, micro-cracking, breakage, damage, can be treated by professional stone care companies.


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Australian winter garden facade design

The winter garden facade is a fundamental experience consisting of complex research natural and beautiful, geometric and layered to convey a rich and varied life.

The three frontages of the Winter Garden Mall in downtown Brisbane are new façades To achieve numerous intents – to create an entertainment and retail experience, to have a coherent identity and to creatively apply the architecture to achieve an overall emotional lifestyle purpose, meeting place in downtown Brisbane.
It is built on a deep cultural heritage and charity, will reside in the name of the building name “Sunshine Room” and “Winter Garden” and create a complete experience, a complex and beautiful , geometric and layered research that conveys the diversity of life. It is not a ‘illustration’ nature, nor is it just an abstract pattern.
The main visual structure created by the facade trees runs (over) the facade of each side. As for the first time I saw the forest, it was an intensive complexity that was almost ‘accessible’. Then double check for voids and lots of deep reading. The details show the life of the rhythmic activity and the fascinating imagination of the light-stimulated scene.
The folds, cuts and textured facades create new highlights and shadow patterns for the position and intensity of the sun from daily and seasonal changes, so nightfall comes to the illumination, creating another reading inside the facade. A low-resolution integrated lighting system has been set up that can change from snowstorms through blasting springs to summers finally into the fall, in one night. Rain, sunset, other examples of the expressive power of the storm system. In short, the appearance is similar and different, but it is never the same. As well as functional facades are also engaged and entertaining.
Each panel in the 4,000 square metre exterior and unique design, fully expresses the fun of experiencing life through dynamic, but inflated palette color and rich language cutting, folding and lighting all of this They all have a rich and coherent cultural experience.

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Shocking cultural capital and the contribution of Singaporeans

At the 2010 Cannes Film Festival, the Singapore film Sandcastle was one of the seven major films screened by International Film Critics Week. This is the sixth consecutive year that Singaporean film has become the most important film festival in the global entertainment industry. The main show of the movie. British film critic Tony Rains commented on the film: it “strongly shocked”. Every brand advocate will admit that it is a very influential brand that gives a strong impact.
These cultural products contribute to the shaping of national brands in their own unique ways. Just as the company’s employees reflect the company’s image, the country’s general public is its most important brand ambassador. The American people are the most enthusiastic brand ambassadors of American national brands at home and abroad. When tourists look for official buildings in the countries where they travel, they often use the national flag to distinguish them. This is probably not very useful in the United States, because basically every commercial building and civilian house hangs the American flag all year round, showing that it is the United States. The pride of the people. As an international ambassador of American national brands, Americans will instinctively advocate the core values ​​of the United States, such as freedom and democracy, as long as they have the opportunity. They will also wear the American flag badge on the lapel of the jacket.
However, Singapore’s approach is different. Singaporeans have played a part in the process of shaping national brands for decades, in contrast to the fact that government agencies have played an absolute (and sometimes overwhelming) role. This chapter focuses on the role of ordinary people and civil society in the non-governmental or commercial sector in the shaping of Singapore’s national branding.

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The easy to use toilets are all selected, after reading these little whites

We all know that when we decorate, we buy materials while we are constructing them, so when we understand the decoration, we will definitely find this order to understand. In the last issue of Xiaobian, I introduced you how to paint the paint. I interspersed in this issue to talk about the purchase of bathroom products. How can I buy a good toilet? What do we need to know to buy a toilet? Drainage method, flushing method, brand, price, whether to choose a smart toilet, etc., let’s start with the following!
The toilet that is easy to use depends on the choice of this Raiders.” Choose the difference “

First, the toilet is a good split or a good one

Toilet purchase
When buying a toilet, many people can’t tell what One-piece toilet, what is a split toilet?

Smart toilet
Synchronous: The one-piece toilet connects the water tank to the toilet, and people can have water flow by simply pressing the button Come out, the amount of water is too much, easy to wash, the installation of the connected toilet is relatively simple, but the price is higher, the length is longer than the split toilet. The one-piece toilet is also called siphon type, and the siphon type is also divided into two types, siphon jet type (mild noise); siphon spiral type (quick, thorough, low smell, low noise). The general appearance of the Siamese is better.

Separate: The water tank is separated from the base, and the toilet needs to be bolted to link the toilet to the water tank. The split toilet is cheaper, the installation is a bit more troublesome, and the water tank is prone to damage. The split type toilet is also called the straight type, and has a large impulse, but the noise is also large, but it is not easy to block. If the toilet paper can be directly put into the toilet, there is no need to set a paper basket next to the toilet. The split toilet has strong punching force and smooth water, which is the advantage of the split toilet.

Although some toilets are said to be one-piece, they are actually fired separately. The last process is spliced ​​together and then glazed. This can be touched by hand if the sides are smooth and free of unevenness. It is one-piece firing, and if there is bump connection, it is separate.

In addition to the traditional split and one-piece toilets, there are wall-mounted toilets to reduce the crowded space. It is especially suitable for wall-mounted toilets. Wall-mounted toilets also have the advantage of Convenient for hygiene, the bottom is suspended.

Second, the toilet is straight or the siphon is good

The toilet is much easier to use. Because the flushing pipe of the straight flush toilet is simple, the pipe is thick, the path is short, the momentum of the water flow is large, and it is particularly easy to flush down the large dirt, so it is not necessary to fear that it will block, which saves a lot of heart. In terms of water saving, it also saves more water than siphon.

The toilet
Another point is that the siphon-type toilet has a high water level. Every time it is convenient, it will worry that the water will splash on the body, which is unsanitary. The straight-through water storage surface is small, so it should be hygienic.

Toilet purchase
Therefore, if the family is small, it is better to choose the toilet. It has a small footprint and is simple and convenient to use. If the water pipes in your home are filled with traps, you should choose a flush toilet. Otherwise, you will know that the toilet is blocked and your heart is blocked.

Smart toilet
Three, wall row toilet and floor drain toilet which is better

The difference between wall toilet and floor drain toilet: The biggest difference between the two is drainage The installation of pipes and water tanks is different. The wall-mounted toilets are also called wall-mounted toilets. They are directly suspended on the wall space and make reasonable use of the wall space. The floor space is small and the bathroom space is saved. The floor drain toilet is a traditional toilet placed directly on the ground. The floor drain toilet has a hole distance of 20cm, 30cm, 40cm, and there is no need to pre-bury the water tank, etc., as long as the center of the sewer is finished after the tile is finished. The distance is one of the above three.

Why is the wall-mounted toilet slowly replacing the toilet: The wall-to-ceiling toilet is to move the toilet pipe to the wall. When purchasing the wall-mounted toilet, there will be a pre-water tank, which is first pre-buried. After the tiles are placed, the ceramic pieces are installed. Wall-row toilets are more and more popular with modern young white-collar workers. It also has some advantages:

1, small footprint, toilets that will occupy the place and Parts such as water tanks are hidden in the wall, very clean and tidy, giving a stylish sense of exquisiteness.

2, the noise is small, because the water tank is installed in the wall to block the noise when flushing.

3, more convenient to clean, is the first choice for people with cleanliness, can be cleaned in 360 degrees without dead ends.

4, easy to shift, can be completed without the use of a shifter, more convenient than the floor-standing toilet.

But there are some inevitable shortcomings: it is very inconvenient to repair the problems in the later stage. It is necessary to cut the wall and the gravity is much smaller than that of the floor drain.

Toilet purchase
Fourth, how to choose the size of the toilet

1, look at the hole spacing

1). The key is the problem of toilet water distance. The toilet water distance, also called the hole distance of the toilet, refers to the horizontal distance from the center of the water pipe to the wall after tiling. The toilet is mainly divided into a floor type and a wall type (wall type). At present, the floor type toilet is more commonly used. Different from the wall row type, the floor-mounted toilet does not need to embed the water tank and other things, only the horizontal distance from the center of the water hole to the wall after the brick is finished after the brick is finished;

2). The general hole spacing is now 300mm, 350mm, 400mm and 450mm, the more common is 300mm and 400mm. Because the drainage method of the floor-mounted toilet is not the pre-buried pipe in the wall, the drainage of the toilet is downward, so the measurement of the hole pitch is very heavy.Want. The measurement hole pitch must be accurate. If the hole pitch is 300mm, the 350mm water distance can not be installed.

3). How to measure the hole pitch? In fact, the measurement method is relatively simple, and the measuring tool selects a general tape measure. First determine the center of the drain hole and measure the straight line distance from the center to the wall. The distance obtained should pay attention to the thickness of the tile. For example, some manufacturers toilets display 400mm, generally only 380mm, manufacturers will reserve 20mm tiling thickness for consumers to adjust.

Smart toilet
2, size of the doorkeeper

The installation position of some toilets is close to the bathroom door, and the size of the door should be considered during installation. Go in, if the water distance of the toilet is enough, but it is too close to the door, it will be encountered when opening the door. This requires on-site measurement. Generally, this is the case. The common treatment method is to slap one part of the door and build a part on the other side to make the door avoid the toilet; or change the water hole of the toilet, but this kind of treatment will put the layer The height will increase and the whole bathroom will be very depressed.

V. How to distinguish between good and bad toilets

1. Weight determination

In fact, we can judge the quality of the toilet by weight. A good quality toilet, the weight is relatively large, usually around 100 kg; and the quality of the toilet, it is relatively light, generally only about 50 kg. Then, we can measure the weight of the water tank cover to roughly judge its quality.

2. The number of sewage outlets

The quality of the toilet is not the better the sewage outlet. On the contrary, the toilet with only one sewage outlet is better.

3. Glaze smoothness

From the glaze inside the toilet, you can also roughly determine the quality of the toilet. The toilet of good quality has a smooth surface and a smooth color. In addition, we can also touch the inner wall of the sewage outlet. The smoother the quality, the higher the quality. On the contrary, if it is very rough, the quality will be very poor. After a long time of use, it will be easily damaged.

4.Drainage opening caliber

The inner wall is made of glazed toilet. During the process of use, it is basically not stained, and the sewage discharge capacity is also very good. Not easy to block. Then when we buy the toilet, we can measure the size of the lower drain, not too small, at least to reach into a palm.

5.Water tank

You can also judge the quality of the toilet through the water tank of the toilet. On the one hand, if the sound of the water tank is large when pumping water, then the quality is poor; on the other hand, you can also add a small amount of blue ink to the water tank, and then observe whether there is blue water flowing out of the toilet. In this way, it is also possible to detect whether the toilet is leaking.

Toilet purchase
6. Determination of water quality

The quality of the toilet water parts has a relatively large impact on its service life, so we When purchasing a toilet, also check the quality of the water.

Judgment method: Press the button at the water tank to hear what the sound is. If it is a crisp sound, it means that the quality is no problem.

7. Flushing method

The flushing method used by the toilet is different, and the effect is different. Therefore, when purchasing the toilet, you should consider your own. In actual situations, choose the flushing method that suits you.

Six, toilet online buy or physical store to buy?

Seven, domestic toilet what brand is good

smart toilet
eight, toilet Shopping Tips

First of all, we must know that the toilet is basically divided into a joint and a split. The one-piece toilet has a barrel shape, which has low space requirements, beautiful appearance and high price. Split toilets are more traditional, but they are very popular and cheaper.

Secondly, whether the water is smooth or not is very important for the selection of toilets. There are two types of flushing methods, flushing and siphoning. The flushing type directly discharges the dirt by means of the impulse, and the disadvantage is that the flushing sound is louder. The principle of the siphonic toilet is to use the flushing water to form a siphon in the sewage pipe to discharge the dirt, and the noise is small in use. The siphon type is already the mainstream in the market because the flush is cleaner and the noise is smaller.

The appearance is the first element of the purchase item, of course, the appearance mentioned here does not refer to the value of the face. It refers to the smoothness of the glaze. The glazed surface of the toilet should be smooth and smooth, and the color should be saturated and beautiful. After checking the appearance, you should also touch the toilet’s water outlet as smooth as the appearance to avoid blockage.


The better toilet is able to reach the position of all-ceramic because the temperature is controlled in the firing, so it will feel heavy in the hand. When you buy, you can pick up the water tank cover with both hands and compare the weight.

Toilet purchase

In the era of rising living standards, the experience of going to the toilet has become very important. Smart toilets have many more intimate experiences, but at a higher price, choosing a good smart toilet has become one of the main topics in the renovation of new homes. If you really want a pleasant toilet experience, try Ina New Sai Tiansi fully automatic smart toilet, automatic opening and closing function to free your hands. Warm water wash, let you experience the refreshing bathing. The most suitable for “lazy cancer” patients is the water net technology, which can clean stubborn stains on the surface of the material with a simple rinse.
<brIX, smart toilet purchase

1, smart toilet is easy to use?

2, smart toilet how to choose

Smart toilet
electricity safety: smart toilets can only be used when the power is on, and the water frequency between the bathrooms is high, so the safety of electricity must be taken seriously. When purchasing, you can consult whether there are protective devices such as plug leakage protection, water-free power-off protection, water temperature, air temperature, and sitting temperature overheat protection to ensure daily safety.

Energy consumption: Every function of the smart toilet needs to use electricity, so whether it is energy-saving or not is also required. For example, smart toilets have both instant and heat storage modes. The two are more energy-consuming than the heat storage type. That is, the hot type is used to make the water temperature higher, while the heat storage type needs to maintain the water temperature.

Function: Basically, the functions provided by each brand of smart toilets are similar, seat heating, hip wash, women’s wash, automatic induction flip, warm air drying and so on. So, what we need to consult is the detailed design of these functions. For example, there are several ways to automatically flip the cover. There are several temperature positions for the thermostatic seat. Is the hip wash and the women’s wash the same nozzle? The drying time is How long… Learn more about the features that are more granular.

Operation: A smart toilet is used by all the young and old, so the smart toilet that is too complicated to operate should not be considered, and it is not practical. In terms of selection operations, you can ask if there is an easy-to-use design. For example, setting a button button, a button can achieve a process of hip washing, drying, flushing, and the like.

Would it be better to buy overseas?

When you buy a smart toilet, many people will think that buying one overseas will be better than domestic. But in fact, this idea is wrong. One is the voltage problem, that is, the domestic 220V voltage needs to be converted to 110V; the other is the water quality problem. In many parts of China, the water quality is hard and it is easy to produce scale. In China, it is more suitable to use sanitary products with filter water purification system. In contrast, many foreign countries may not have water quality problems, and they will not install a filter water purification system.

About the purchase of the toilet, Xiaobian divides it into 9 small parts to tell everyone. After reading it, you should understand what kind of toilet is suitable for you. Finally, Xiaobian makes a summary: whether the toilet is good or good, straight or siphon, floor or wall row; how to choose the size and brand; judge the quality; how to choose the smart toilet, etc. Content.
(provided by Shenyang Building Materials Network) <

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Future aviation NASA relies on new key strategies

NASA announced today that it is realigning its aerospace research program with a view to improving efficiency and safety while reducing costs and industry impact on the environment.

This new vision will bring all the blueprints in. Jaiwon Letter Aviation, deputy director of NASA. “This is clear, effectively linking our research goals to national priorities and providing a framework to organize our efforts as we move forward to do so. ”

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Roman mosaic visits the underground mall of the Bank of England

In July of this year, the Bank of England will launch its first application with its historic headquarters and hidden operations inside the hidden room. The virtual roaming bank in England will invite citizens to visit the construction of Lead Street, through a series of fascinating and unprecedented 360-degree panoramic images, including the gold treasury in the buildings that are rarely viewed. The app will be available to smartphone and tablet users on Apple and Google platforms, as well as through the bank’s website at www.bankofengland.co.uk/ virtualtourapp

The tour began with the construction of a 3D model that can be rotated to select a series of individual rooms – a perfect combination of historical library and work – to unravel the facts and high definition images.

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Japanese architect SAKO design star shape winery

On a small island in the middle of a lake in Beijing, the Japanese architect SAKO has completed the project of the invention of the winery. The hotel management company, according to the shape of the star, is often used in official documents to mark a footnote. There is only one way to provide access to the Asterisk winery across a small bridge across the lake.

Unlike the traditional asterisk shape, the 22,000-foot winery has five aspects instead of six, giving a form more Similar to a starfish. Each of the five predictions carries a different function that satisfies the central space, with the upper limit being at the highest point of complexity.

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Black Hat USA 2013 supplier area includes companies such as Veracode, Booz Allen Consulting and Microsoft, with creative schwag such as Zombie Breakfast (Cereal) and “Hacker” playing cards.

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The most common 8 kinds of floor tiles on the market, get to know

The floor tiles are a kind of decoration that many people pay attention to. After all, the floor tiles are chosen, and your home decoration is half successful. However, in the investigation, it was found that there are very few people who can really buy the floor tiles for the floor tiles, and most of them buy the wrong stickers, which is a pity. So how to choose the floor tiles is the most correct? Xiaobian lists the most common 8 kinds of floor tiles on the market, and talks about the difference between them.

The floor tiles are made of clay and can be divided into materials according to the material:

1, glazed tile:

The glazed brick is the surface of the brick that has been glazed brick. Glazed tiles are divided into ceramic glazed tiles and porcelain glazed tiles according to raw materials. According to the gloss, it is divided into matt and bright.

Pros and cons:

Generally speaking, glazed tiles are rich in color and pattern, and have strong anti-fouling function.

But because the surface of the glazed tile is glaze, the wear resistance is not so good.


Glazed tiles are generally suitable for bathrooms, balconies, etc. In addition, bright glazed tiles are suitable for the kitchen.

2, whole body brick (also called non-slip brick)

The whole body brick is The surface is not glazed, and the material and color of the front and back are the same (so called the whole brick, the whole body!)

Pros and cons:

The whole body brick is more wear-resistant and the anti-slip performance is better.

But the colors and colors are more general.


It is widely used in halls, aisles and outdoor walkways, and is generally used less on walls.

3, porcelain tile

natural stone crushed and chemically bonded The agent is pressed and then calcined at a high temperature.

Pros and cons:

High flexural strength, abrasion resistance, acid and alkali resistance, no discoloration, and long life. Freezing and thawing at -15 ° C – 20 ° C, cycling 20 times is no problem (the millennium old demon is simply!). But color and color, you don’t ask so much. Moreover, the porcelain tiles themselves are very rough.


Exterior. It is specially used for wind, frost and rain.

4, parquet

is to cut the fired tiles After assembling, the tiles are assembled into various patterns to serve as a decorative effect.

Benefits and disadvantages:

More patterns and colors.

But the price is expensive and expensive.


Some places that require special decoration, such as entrance porch. (However, for local tyrants, you can use anywhere, as long as you like!)

5, polished tiles:

Polished tiles are bricks that have been polished and polished.

Pros and cons:

The polished brick surface is much cleaner than the whole brick. This brick is very hard and very wear resistant. If you use the oozing technique, the polished tiles can make a variety of imitation stone and wood-like effects.

The polished brick is not resistant to dirt, non-slip, and the colored liquid is easy to penetrate and cause discoloration of the brick surface.


In addition to the bathroom and kitchen, most of the indoor space can be used.

6, vitrified brick:

The vitrified brick is made of quartz sand The mud is fired in a certain proportion, then polished and polished but does not need to be polished. The surface is as smooth and translucent as the glass mirror, which is the hardest of all the tiles.

Pros and cons:

Water absorption, edge straightness, flexural strength, acid and alkali resistance are superior to ordinary glazed tiles, polished tiles and General marble.

But the vitrified brick is not perfect. Its defect is that after the grinding, the pores are exposed, and dust, oil and the like are easily infiltrated.


Glass tiles are suitable for living rooms, bedrooms, walkways, etc.

7, Mosaic:

The mosaic is also called paper brick. A small piece of tile used to form a variety of decorative patterns on the building (feelingIt’s a bit like a mosaic, except that the mosaic is a whole, and the mosaic is a small piece and a whole.)

Pros and cons:

There are many kinds of colors, and the decoration is very strong. Basically, it can be described by high-end atmosphere.

But the mosaic has a fatal flaw that is not resistant to dirt. In addition, the price is also a little expensive.


Mainly used for paving or interior wall decoration, or for exterior wall finishes.

8, antique brick:

Antique bricks belong to ordinary tiles, and porcelain The film is basically the same, the only difference is that during the firing process, the antique bricks are imitated in the old style, which is essentially a glazed porcelain brick, which attracts people’s attention with the unique charm of the classic. The vicissitudes of the years and the heavy history, the antique bricks create a nostalgic atmosphere through style, color and pattern.

Pros and cons:

There is a thick layer of glaze on the surface of the antique brick, which has good antifouling ability; good retro style, no loss of fashion; texture design Good, generally not outdated; small size, can do a variety of modeling on the effect of making a mosaic or paving effect; good slip resistance; rich colors.

Because the surface of the antique brick is a layer of glazed surface, it is not easy to do chamfering, edging and other deep processing, the hardness is lower, the water absorption rate is higher, and the brightness is not high.


The living room floor, kitchen, bedroom, balcony, etc. can be laid, and the wall can be considered.


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